The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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The classic analysis of the operation of and responses to stigmata in informal interaction is Erving Goffman’s discussion of Stigma?
A decree handed down by the Legislative Assembly in December required that anyone – with the exception of merchants appropriately vouched for by municipal authorities – receiving a variety of payments from the public purse had to produce a certificate attesting that he or she currently resided in the French Empire, and had done so without interruption for the previous six months.
The proclivity appears to have been of older provenance, 74 deriving perhaps from a time when many of those travel- ing the roads torpe the country were subject to one form or another of unfree labor, and thus seen as little more than property capable of mov- ing itself. Their utter seriousness became unmistakably apparent when they voted to have the King beheaded in the Place invejtion la Revolution on 21 January Next, I argue that the processes involved in this monopolization force us to rethink the very nature of modern states as they have been portrayed by the dominant strands of sociological theories of the state.
By the summer, with war against Prussia and Austria heating up and the problem of emigration persisting, the Assembly on July adopted a further “Decree on Passports” entirely suspending the issuance of such documents for departure from France, except to certain selected groups distinguished mainly by their need to travel abroad for commercial pur- poses.
It is through written documents – such as iden- tification papers – that much of the surveillance entailed by modern state administration is carried out: Todd Gitlin also reacted with enthusiasm to the idea of the book. In particular, I seek inention show that the notion that states “penetrate” societies over time fails adequately to char- acterize the nature of state development, and argue instead that we would do better to regard states as “embracing” their citizenries more successfully over time.
A number of legislators shouted that such a provision was unacceptable, for, as Becquey put it, “you have no right” to determine where people shall go. Whether or not our language adequately reflects this reality, however, the activities by passoprt states “embrace” populations have become essential to the production and reproduction of states in the modern period.
Broader significance of the law. At the same time that the watch committees were eviscerated, the Convention moved to liberalize documentary restrictions on travel. Passport controls, in particular, had been a vital mechanism of domina- tion under the old regime in France, and were clearly regarded as such by those who made the revolution there in the late eighteenth century. This subjectivistic approach, given pow- erful impetus by the wide and much-deserved attention given to Benedict Anderson’s notion of “imagined communities,” tends to ignore the extent to which identities must become codified and institutionalized in order to become socially significant.
It was during this period that the Gironde rose to prominence under the leadership of Brissot, Vergniaud, and others, and “leftist” measures found increasing resonance in the Legislative Assembly. Wilbanks Limited preview – The issue of identification ID – its reliability, integrity, confidentiality, etc. Once inventjon genie of the state’s authority to identify persons and authorize their movements is out of the bottle, it is hard to get him back in.
John Torpey – Wikipedia
In March 1however, the Directory took up a proposal to change that law to make it conform to the fact that the district directories – formerly responsible, along with the municipalities, for giving their recommendation to the departements with respect to the legitimacy of requests for passports for departure from France – had since been sup- pressed.
The project has been motivated in considerable part by the uneasy feeling that much sociological writing about states is insup- portably abstract, failing to tell us how states actually constitute and maintain themselves as ongoing concerns. Passports identity papers and the Nazi persecution of the Jews. People who do not move in a container of some sort are difficult to constrain, and the effort to restrict them may entail turning the area to be controlled itself into a container.
Several protagonists in the early Assembly debate over passport controls had insisted that, notwithstanding their birth elsewhere, many foreigners were “true friends of liberty” and should therefore not be encumbered with extraordinary legal burdens. Against this background, let us briefly examine the imposition of passport controls in early modern European states, as rulers increasingly sought to establish untrammeled claims over territories and people.
The term “foreigner” here applied principally to French citizens from outside the capital. The traditional and unmistakably sexual imagery of societies being “penetrated” by the state, however, unnecessarily and misleadingly nar- rows our analytical vision about the nature of modern states.
John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
Another member observed that French travelers in Spain were experiencing difficulties because the authorities there were refusing to recognize passports issued by the municipalities, and hence insisted that all passports be visaed by higher authorities les gouverneurs.
Though not without flaws and loopholes, of course, such registration systems have gone a long way toward allowing states successfully to “embrace” their populations and thus to acquire from them the resources they need to survive, as well as to exclude from among the beneficiaries of state largesse those groups deemed ineligible for benefits.
The invention of the passport: The ability of states uniquely and unambiguously to identify persons, whether “their own” or others, is at the heart of the process whereby states, and the interna- tional state system, have succeeded over time in monopolizing the legitimate means of movement in the modern world. The welfare of the state is in this word: States wanted to embrace their inhab- itants more firmly, and to be able to distinguish them from outsiders more clearly, than was possible with such methods.
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After some further minor sparring about the inconveniences asso- ciated with the passport regulations, the Assembly adjourned. Meanwhile, those foreigners who were permitted to remain – chiefly those from friendly or allied countries, those who had entered France prior toand those recognized for “their patriotism and their probity” – were to receive an identity card bearing their description. Systems of registration, censuses, and the like – along with documents such as passports and identity cards that amount to mobile versions of the “files” states use to store knowledge about their subjects – have been crucial in states’ efforts to achieve these aims.
Then, as people from all levels of society came to find themselves in a more nearly equal position relative to the state, state controls on movement among local spaces within their domains subsided and were replaced by restrictions that concerned the outer “national” boundaries of states. Accordingly, the Constituent Assembly only three days later decreed that it was necessary to uphold the right to “free circulation of persons and things,” at least up to a distance of ten limes from the bor- der, and that all the administrative, municipal, and military authorities should cooperate to guarantee such freedom.
Yet the picture was far from monochromatic. Teh innovative study combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people.
John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
The American Political Science Review. Yet at the same time, the rise of liberal and natural law ideas proclaiming individual freedom and the inviolability of the person cast into disfavor older habits of “writing on the body” such as branding, scarification, and tattooing, as well as dress codes as means for identifying persons except when tthe methods of tne are voluntarily assumed, of course. To paraphrase Marx, states make their own policy, “but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given, and trans- mitted” from the outside.
Accordingly, these rulers had a powerful interest in identifying and controlling the movements of their subjects. As attestations of rev- olutionary sentiment with significant advantages to those holding them, the distribution of certificates de civisme could be used as a way to terrorize those who pasport not have them.
At the EUI, Raffaelle Romanelli’s enthusi- asm for the project helped sustain me through some uncertain times; my friend Christian Joppke pushed me forward, imvention provided plenty of good company.
Girardin, the implacable critic of passport restrictions, togpey went on the attack. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John C.
Modern “nation-states” and the international system in which they are embedded have grown increasingly committed to and reliant thd their ability to make strict demarcations between mutually distinct bodies of citizens, as well as among different groups of their own subjects, when one or more of these groups are singled out for “special treatment. The route which they intended to take on their departure from the country was to be recorded in the passports they would require to leave France.
How, indeed, is nationhood institutionalized? ISBN 0 8 hbk.